Pregnancy and Yeast Infections

LaboratoryDuring pregnancy, a woman is at an increased risk of contracting several different types of infections, including urinary tract infections (UTI) and bacterial vaginosis (BV). A yeast infection is another condition that is very common for expecting mothers, especially during their second and third trimester. You already may be well aware of yeast infections, considering that an estimated 75% of all women will have at least one in their lifetime.

While this infection can be quite annoying and uncomfortable, it is generally harmless and can be easily treated with antifungal medication. Still, it's important to treat this condition as early as possible to avoid transferring the infection to the baby during delivery.

Read below to find out more about this condition, the causes, available treatments, and how to prevent one in the future.

What is a Yeast Infection?

A yeast infection, also known as vaginal candidiasis, is a fungal infection that affects the woman's vulva and vagina. Under normal circumstances, the vagina keeps a healthy balance of its pH (acid level) and the amount of yeast inside of it. This balance acts as a type of protection and helps kill off bad bacteria. When a yeast infection occurs, the levels of acid and yeast in the vagina become unbalanced and allows the yeast to overgrow, which causes uncomfortable symptoms.

A yeast infection is not a sexually transmitted infection (STI), but women often develop the condition after they first become regularly sexually active. It may also be linked to mouth-to-genital contact (oral-genital sex). This infection affects up to 3 out of 4 women, making it extremely common. Fortunately, yeast infections are not considered serious and can be cured within 2 weeks with appropriate treatment.

Why are Yeast Infections Common During Pregnancy?

Yeast infections are much more common in pregnant women because of the hormonal changes happening in their body. Pregnancy increases the release of the hormone estrogen, which is known to upset the vagina's chemical balance. Pregnant women also have a higher amount of sugar in their vaginal secretions, making it easier for the yeast to grow. There are other factors that could increase the risk of contracting a yeast infection, including

  • Hormonal changes that come with pregnancy or before your period
  • Taking hormone medication
  • Taking antibiotics
  • Taking steroids
  • Having high blood sugar or diabetes
  • Vaginal intercourse
  • Douching
  • The vagina coming into contact with blood or semen
  • An impaired immune system
What are the Symptoms of a Yeast Infection?

The symptoms of a yeast infection can vary by how far progressed the infection is, but generally includes one or more of the following

  • An increased amount of discharge
  • Watery vaginal discharge
  • Discharge that looks white/tan in color, or possibly green/yellow
  • Discharge that looks similar to cottage cheese
  • Discharge smells like yeast/bread
  • Itching or irritation in the vagina and vulva
  • Redness or swelling of the vulva
  • Burning sensation during urination or intercourse

Pregnant women are more likely to have what's called a "complicated yeast infection". This simply means that you may experience multiple yeast infections throughout your pregnancy, which can create chronic symptoms that take longer to resolve. This is considered normal and is not a cause for concern, especially if you are in your second or third trimester.

How is a Yeast Infection Diagnosed?

If you suspect that you might have a yeast infection, it's important to make an appointment with your doctor right away. Treating yeast infections early can save you from experiencing more uncomfortable symptoms.

At the doctor's office, your doctor will provide a pelvic exam and use a small tool to painlessly swab your discharge or vaginal secretions. The sample is put under a microscope, where a physician is able to identify and diagnose an infection.

How is a Yeast Infection Treated?

In normal circumstances, doctors usually prescribe a single-dose oral medication called Diflucan that can clear up an infection within a few days. However, this medication has not been proven to be safe to take during pregnancy and should be avoided if possible.

Instead of an oral pill, doctors will recommend you take vaginal creams and suppositories to cure the infection. These are anti-fungal medications that fight off overgrown yeast and restore the vaginal balance. Only certain creams and suppositories are safe to use during pregnancy. Treatments like Terazol or Monistat are generally considered safe for pregnant women, but make sure to consult with your doctor to get their professional opinion.

It may take up to two weeks to fully get rid of a yeast infection, but the uncomfortable symptoms may subside within the first few days. After the infection has cleared, it may be beneficial to use a starch-free drying powder to prevent another infection.

Can a Yeast Infection Harm my Baby?

Yeast infections rarely cause any complications for you or your baby. These infections are easy to treat and tend to stay localized in one area. If left untreated, yeast infections have the possibility of passing to your baby's mouth during delivery. This condition is called "thrush", and can be treated with the Nystatin, another anti-fungal medication. This makes it important for pregnant women to visit their doctor as soon as they start experiencing symptoms.

How can I Prevent a Yeast Infection?

There are several different steps you can take to prevent a yeast infection from recurring, including:

  • Wear loose, breathable cotton underwear.
  • After showering, use your blow dryer on a low, cool setting to help dry the outside of your genital area.
  • Always wipe from front to back when using the restroom.
  • Avoid wearing damp, wet clothes. Change your clothes immediately after swimming or working out.
  • Include yogurt with the bacteria "lactobacillus acidophilus" in your diet.
  • Limit your sugar intake, as sugar promotes the growth of yeast.

Avoid using these:

  • Tight-fitting pants or pantyhose
  • Douching
  • Feminine hygiene sprays
  • Sanitary pads and tampons that contain deodorant or scents
  • Taking a bubble bath or sitting in a hot tub
  • Using scented soaps
  • Using colored or perfumed toilet paper
Outlook

Overall, yeast infections are more of a nuisance than a concern during pregnancy. This condition can make you feel quite uncomfortable, but it is easy to treat and presents no long-term complications. If your symptoms are particularly hard to manage, talk to your doctor about other over-the-counter medications that specifically treat burning sensations, itchiness, and swelling. Remember to completely finish the entire course of medication to get rid of the infection completely and prevent it from coming back.

Sources and Additional Literature

Elkady, A., Sinha, P., & Hassan, S. A. Z. (Eds.). (2019). Infections in Pregnancy: An Evidence-Based Approach. Cambridge University Press.

Vieira-Baptista, P., & Bornstein, J. (2019). Candidiasis, Bacterial Vaginosis, Trichomoniasis and Other Vaginal Conditions Affecting the Vulva. Vulvar Disease (pp. 167-205). Springer, Cham.

Jeanmonod, R., et al. (2019). Vaginal Candidiasis (Vulvovaginal Candidiasis). StatPearls.

Presterl, E., et al. (2019). Medical Mycology: Fungal Infections. Basic Microbiology and Infection Control for Midwives (pp. 155-159). Springer, Cham.

Chatzivasileiou, P., & Vyzantiadis, T. A. (2019). Vaginal yeast colonisation: From a potential harmless condition to clinical implications and management approaches-A literature review. Mycoses: Diagnosis, Therapy and Prophylaxis of Fungal Diseases.